The Czech Military Police (MP) formation is historically dated back to 1791, when the Military Police Guard Corp (VPSS) in the Habsburg monarchy was firstly created. VPSS featured a security component of the civilian government authority. However, the component was militarily organized and strongly tied up with the monarchy Army.
VPSS had changed through different seasons of transformation until 1870, especially in relation to the performance of its tasks. The first record of actual MP existence were in the period 1870 – 1918. Fortified towns lost their importance and the meaning at this time. VPSS became a character of MP without limited authority just to the military components. MP were performing security services also for civilians. It could be probably comparable to the gendarmerie, within the difference that the service was performed only insides the cities.
The core of emerging units of gendarmerie was built up and created just by experienced policemen during the First World War. Historical sources pick up the role of gendarmes especially during the outbreak of the conflict in the border areas, when Gendarmes were firstly involved in combat operations with the enemy reconnaissance troops.
MP changed its structure, organization and missions many times since the first establishment. Its unit were even dissolved, dismissed or transferred, within the reflection of the political and military situation in Czechoslovakia.
By the adoption of Act 124/1992 Coll., about the Military Police, dated May 1, 1992. MP received a legal framework. MP started soon act in subordination to the Czech Army Chief of General Staff (GS) in the organizational structure of the Army and subsequently transferred to direct subordination of the Minister of Defence (MoD) CR.
MP's missions, position and competence is actually enshrined in Act 300/2013 Coll., about the Military Police, dated 21 August 2013.
Picture 1: Czech MP structure
Picture 2: Czech MP Territorial Scope of Effectivness
For more information:
Military police: http://www.army.cz/en/ministry-of-defence/struc/mp/military-police-106206/